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Self-heating Li-ion battery could beat winter 'range anxiety'

21 January 2016

A lithium-ion battery that self-heats at sub-zero temperatures might help to relieve those winter 'range anxieties' for electric vehicle owners.

An all-climate battery that rapidly self-heats battery materials and electrochemical interfaces in cold environments (image: Chao-Yang Wang/Penn State)

"It is a long standing problem that batteries do not perform well at sub-zero temperatures," says Penn State University's Professor Chao-Yang Wang. "This may not be an issue for phones and laptops, but is a huge barrier for electric vehicles, drones, outdoor robots and space applications."

Conventional batteries at below freezing temperatures suffer severe power loss, which leads to slow charging in cold weather, restricted regenerative breaking and reduction of vehicle cruise range by as much as 40 percent, the researchers report in the latest issue of the journal, Nature. These problems require larger and more expensive battery packs to compensate for the cold sapping of energy.

"We don't want electric cars to lose 40 to 50 percent of their cruise range in frigid weather as reported by the American Automobile Association and we don't want the cold weather to exacerbate range anxiety," says Wang.  "In cold winters, range anxiety is the last thing we need."

The researchers, relying on previous patents by EC Power, developed the all-climate battery to weigh only 1.5 percent more and cost only 0.04 percent of the base battery. They also designed it to go from -20 to 0 degrees Celsius within 20 seconds and from -30 to 0 degrees Celsius in 30 seconds and consume only 3.8 percent and 5.5 percent of the cell's capacity - far less than the 40 percent loss in conventional lithium ion batteries.

The all-climate battery uses a nickel foil of 50 micrometre thickness with one end attached to the negative terminal and the other extending outside the cell to create a third terminal.  A temperature sensor attached to a switch causes electrons to flow through the nickel foil to complete the circuit. This rapidly heats up the nickel foil through resistance heating and warms the inside of the battery. 

Once the battery is at 0 degrees Celsius, the switch turns off and the electric current flows in the normal manner.

While other materials could also serve as a resistance-heating element, nickel is low cost and works well.

"Next we would like to broaden the work to a new paradigm called SmartBattery," says Wang.  "We think we can use similar structures or principles to actively regulate the battery's safety, performance and life."


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