Artificial leaf can produce medicine on Mars
22 December 2016
Inspired by nature, scientists found a way to produce medicine sustainably and cheaply just about anywhere, whether in a jungle or another planet.
Chemical engineers at Eindhoven University of Technology, inspired by the art of nature where leaves are able to collect enough sunlight to produce food, created a ‘mini-factory’ whereby sunlight can be captured to make chemical products.
This ‘mini-factory’, a prototype reactor, is shaped as a leaf and features in the journal Angewandte Chemie.
The researchers came across new materials, known as luminescent solar concentrators (LSC’s), which are able to capture sunlight in a similar way. Special light-sensitive molecules in these materials capture a large amount of the incoming light that they then convert into a specific colour that is conducted to the edges via light conductivity. These LSC’s are often used in practice in combination with solar cells to boost the yield.
The researchers, led by Dr. Timothy Noël, combined the idea of an LSC with their knowledge of microchannels, incorporating very thin channels in a silicon rubber LSC through which a liquid can be pumped. In this way they were able to bring the incoming sunlight into contact with the molecules in the liquid with high enough intensity to generate chemical reactions.
While the reaction they chose serves as an initial example, the results surpassed all their expectations, and not only in the lab. “Even an experiment on a cloudy day demonstrated that the chemical production was 40 percent higher than in a similar experiment without LSC material”, says research leader Noël. “We still see plenty of possibilities for improvement. We now have a powerful tool at our disposal that enables the sustainable, sunlight-based production of valuable chemical products like drugs or crop protection agents.”
The potential from this process is out of this world. The chemical reactions for producing drugs currently require toxic chemicals and a lot of energy in the form of fossil fuels. By using visible light the same reactions become sustainable, cheap and, in theory, countless times faster. But Noël believes it should not have to stop there. “Using a reactor like this means you can make drugs anywhere, in principle, whether malaria drugs in the jungle or paracetamol on Mars. All you need is sunlight and this mini-factory.”